O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in a state of janābah,1 then purify yourselves. But if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women2 and do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with it. Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you, but He intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful.
ACCORDING TO QURAN
Wash face x1
Forearm to the elbow x1
Wipe thé head x1
Wash feet to the ankles x1
Sahih al-Bukhari 136
Narrated Nu`am Al-Mujmir:
Once I went up the roof of the mosque, along with Abu Huraira. He perform ablution and said, “I heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, “On the Day of Resurrection, my followers will be called “Al-Ghurr-ul- Muhajjalun” from the trace of ablution and whoever can increase the area of his radiance should do so (i.e. by performing ablution regularly).’ “
Sahih al-Bukhari 137
Narrated `Abbad bin Tamim:
My uncle asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) about a person who imagined to have passed wind during the prayer. Allah’ Apostle replied: “He should not leave his prayers unless he hears sound or smells something.”
Sahih Muslim 226a
Humran, the freed slave of ‘Uthman, said:
Uthman b. ‘Affan called for ablution water and this is how he performed the ablution. He washed his hands thrice. He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose with water (three times). He then washed his face three times, then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times, then washed his left arm like that, then wiped his head; then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times, then washed his left foot like that, and then said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) perform ablution like this ablution of mine. Then the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: He who performs ablution like this ablution of mine and then stood up (for prayer) and offered two rak’ahs of prayer without allowing his thoughts to be distracted, all his previous sins are expiated. Ibn Shihab said: Our scholars remarked: This is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer
Sahih Muslim 228
‘Amr b Sa’id b al-As reported:
I was with Uthman, and he called for ablution water and said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) say: When the time for a prescribed prayer comes, if any Muslim performs ablution well and offers his prayer with humility and bowing, it will be an expiation for his past sins, so long as he has not committed a major sin; and this applies for all times.
Sahih Muslim 232a
Humran, the freed slave of Uthman reported:
One day Uthman b. Affan performed the ablution well, and then said: I saw Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) perform ablution, the best ablution, and then observed: He who performed ablution like this and then went towards the mosque and nothing (but the love of) prayer urged him (to do so), all his previous (minor) sins would be expiated.
In a nut shell there is more than 1 way to make wudu
- Described in Quran
- Described in the Sunnah
Sahih al-Bukhari 159
(the slave of ‘Uthman) I saw ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out. then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows “”thrice,”” passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice. Then he said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said ‘If anyone performs ablution like that of mine and offers a two-rak’at prayer during which he does not think of anything else (not related to the present prayer) then his past sins will be forgiven.’ “
Sahih al-Bukhari 186
Amr: My father sawAmr bin Abi Hasan asking
Abdullah bin Zaid about the ablution of the Prophet.Abdullah bin Zaid asked for earthenware pot containing water and in front of them performed ablution like that of the Prophet (ﷺ) . He poured water from the pot over his hand and washed his hands thrice and then he put his hands in the pot and rinsed his mouth and washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out with three handfuls of water. Again he put his hand in the water and washed his face thrice and washed his forearms up to the elbows “”twice;”” and then put his hands in the water and then passed them over his head by bringing them to the front and then to the rear of the head once, and then he washed his feet up to the ankles.
ACCORDING TO SUNNAH
Washing the hands x3. Wash the mouth /rinsing. Rinse the nose / snort water or place the thumb and index finger inside. Washing the arms up to the elbows x2 or x3 ( starting with the right and then the left). Wiping the head including the ears or cleaning ears after the head
(Both accepted ). Washing the feet up to ankles x3
TAYAMAM/ PURIFICATION WITH CLEAN DUST/SAND
Sahih al-Bukhari 336
Urwa's father: Aisha said, "I borrowed a necklace from Asma' and it was lost. So Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) sent a man to search for it and he found it. Then the time of the prayer became due and there was no water. They prayed (without ablution) and informed Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) about it, so the verse of Tayammum was revealed." Usaid bin Hudair said toAisha, “May Allah reward you. By Allah, whenever anything happened which you did not like, Allah brought good for you and for the Muslims in that.”
It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent Usayd ibn Hudayr and some others to look for a necklace that ‘Aa’ishah had lost. The time for prayer came and they prayed without wudoo’. When they came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) they complained to him about that, then the verse of tayammum was revealed.” Al-Nufayli added: And Usayd ibn Hudayr said: “May Allaah reward you with good, for by Allaah there has never happened to you anything that you dislike but Allaah granted relief for you and for the Muslims through it.”
Narrated by Abu Awwaanah, 873; al-Tabaraani, 131.
This indicates that in the absence of water – which was the only means of purification before tayammum – it is permissible to pray without wudoo’, so it is more apt that it is permissible to pray in the absence of dust which is of a lower status than water.
From this it may be understood that the person who is unable to purify himself – whether that is because there is no means of purification or because he is unable to find it or is unable to use it if it is present – is permitted to pray without purifying himself.
Sahih al-Bukhari 334
Aisha: (the wife of the Prophet) We set out with Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) on one of his journeys till we reached Al- Baida' or Dhatul-Jaish, a necklace of mine was broken (and lost). Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) stayed there to search for it, and so did the people along with him. There was no water at that place, so the people went to Abu- Bakr As-Siddiq and said, "Don't you see whatAisha has done? She has made Allah’s Apostle and the people stay where there is no water and they have no water with them.” Abu Bakr came while Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) was sleeping with his head on my thigh, He said, to me: “You have detained Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and the people where there is no water and they have no water with them. So he admonished me and said what Allah wished him to say and hit me on my flank with his hand. Nothing prevented me from moving (because of pain) but the position of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) on my thigh. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) got up when dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed the Divine Verses of Tayammum. So they all performed Tayammum. Usaid bin Hudair said, “O the family of Abu Bakr! This is not the first blessing of yours.” Then the camel on which I was riding was caused to move from its place and the necklace was found beneath it.
Sahih al-Bukhari 335
Narrated Jabir bin `Abdullah:
The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me. -1. Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey. -2. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due. -3. The booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. -4. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection). -5. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind.
O you who believe, when you rise for Salāh, (prayer) wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and make MasH (wiping by hands) of your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of major impurity, cleanse yourselves well (by taking bath). If you are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had sexual contact with women, and you find no water, then, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands with it. Allah does not like to impose a problem on you; He, rather likes to cleanse you and to complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful.
TO PERFORM TAYAMAM
Wipe your face x1
Wipe your hands x1